At Enel’s research facility in Livorno, three different energy storage systems are being tested: lithium ion batteries, vanadium redox flow batteries and sodium-nickel chloride "ZEBRA" (Zero Emission Battery Research Activity) batteries.

The key performance factors being investigated are:

- Response and inversion time
- Round trip efficiency
- Real vs nominal capacity
- Performances decay


Vanadium Redox Flow Battery


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